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中国教育军备竞赛

????题图来自东方IC,本文来自微信公众号:非凡油条(ID:ffyoutiao),作者:豆腐乳儿,
,海淀孩子,天下无敌啊!,
,最近在网上流传着这样一个段子:,
,,
,这个段子在某种程度上说明了北京城六区教育的残酷性——外人看来,北京高考相当容易,但在北京城六区家长这里,则是努力不断提前,从小就要抓起的漫漫长路。顺便说一句,在城六区外的北京,一本录取率甚至还不如某些高考大省。,
,这就意味着不少家长,尤其是更多负责照看孩子的那一方,要早早就花很多心思在孩子教育问题上。高投入、长时期、密集型的家庭教育模式也就逐渐被很多家庭接受。,
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,上述言论来自杨可(2018)的《母职的经纪人化——教育市场化背景下的母职变迁》里被采访的一个孩子母亲。这篇论文提出,由于教育、培养孩子需要花费很多精力,不少家庭成员(绝大多数为母亲)来为孩子收集信息、制订教育目标和计划、发挥监督作用、整合教育资源,这种做法很像把自家孩子当成“明星”来培养,所以“母职”出现了“经纪人化”的现象。,
,那么为什么会有“母职的经纪人化”现象?承担“经纪人”角色的,为什么大多数是母亲?这种对孩子教育高投入的做法,又会给孩子、家长和家庭带来什么样的影响呢?,
,“母职的经纪人化”是教育军备竞赛的产物,
,在北京最好的高中之一人大附中的学生之间流传着一个段子:“高中不努力,毕业去隔壁”,也就是说他们心中最差的选择就是隔壁的中国人民大学。类似的事情在上海也有:被全国唯二的师范985之一华东师大哺育起来的华二附中的学生们,也觉得最差的结局是考华东师大。,
,这是相当可怕的现实——绝大多数人眼中奋斗许多年才能稍微接近的目标,只是别人的起跑线。,
,然而进入人大附中/华二这样的明星高中有时相当困难的。这里的学生不然就是成绩顶尖,不然就是非富即贵。换言之,早在进入高中之前,北京的最优秀的学生就被这些名校高中掐尖了。别说城六区之外,就连这些非明星高中的人,考上好大学的概率都很低。,
,继续前推,孩子们就要上明星初中,再往前就是小学和早教,那是一丝一毫都不可以放松。,
,妈妈们担任经纪人的军备竞赛也就可以理解了。,
,而在这场军备竞赛中,仅仅是学校教育是不够的,甚至是靠不住的,不仅像上面提到的那位家长是这么认为的,就连培训机构里的老师也是这么想的。《母职的经纪人化——教育市场化背景下的母职变迁》里一位有近20年课外培训经验的老师是这么说的:,
,
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,话是也没错,毕竟“减负”的结果不是真的把孩子的负担减下来了,而是减少了学校的负担。最终高考还是这个难度,留学涉及的事更多,学校更带不动,学生终究还是要在课外补课。然而教育机构鱼龙混杂,在课外学什么、怎么学、在什么机构学成了家长不得不面对的问题。这等于是把学校教育的负担转移到了家庭教育中,是一个教育负担转嫁到家庭的过程。,
,用经济学术语来说,这是把国立教育单位的教育专业性下放到了家庭,是一个去专业化的过程。但是跟垃圾分类这样无关痛痒的专业化下放不同,孩子是家长唯一的希望,就算再难也要硬着头皮上。,
,干的时间久了,自己也就成了职业经纪人。,
,家庭教育的重担,大多落在了母亲身上,
,除了公共教育的“减负”导致育负担转嫁到家庭之外,几十年来中国家庭还有很多变化。如在城市化和计划生育的影响下,中国的核心家庭变成了父母与一个孩子的三口小家庭模式。,
,在每家每户孩子都很少的情况下,家长就会采取精心培养的模式,在孩子身上投入的总精力和资源成本比以往生很多孩子的时候还要多。,
,在《花你钱是老娘看得起你》里我们提到过,中产阶级的家庭消费模式是:男性努力工作,妻子做主妇,做“代理有闲者”。,
,这是近代社会欧美国家的情况,放在今日之中国,又是另一番光景。,
,中国女性在工作领域的解放较为充分一些,职场竞争的观念很得人心,而一般小家庭也很难有钱让女性完全做家庭主妇“代理有闲”,所以女人依附于丈夫生存,负责花钱的现象弱了很多。但这个角色总要有人扮演,那就是孩子。,
,在《我要是女的,我也不想生孩子》里我们提到过,女性在家庭中承担了更多照料家人的任务。如果教育负担转嫁到家庭,那么一般来说扛起这部分责任的还会是母亲。这仍然是传统家庭分工的遗留。,
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,这种遗留在人心中相当顽固。《母职的经纪人化——教育市场化背景下的母职变迁》里一位父亲是这样说的:“肯定是她妈操心多,她都给全程规划好了,老师也是她挑……我就负责跑腿开车,然后交钱。”,
,不仅父亲这么看,上面提到的那位培训老师也是认为母亲操心孩子教育更为合理:“我现在是越来越觉得全职妈妈的家庭更合理了。这是据我自己观察,我觉得是这样,这个社会应该有一个合理的社会分工……这个社会分工需要有一个人,家庭内部结构里这个孩子是有人专职来照顾的,然后在这个基础上如果你还有余力,你可以干一点自己喜欢的工作嘛。”,
,我们还是相当倾向于男女平等的,所以并不认为母亲回归家庭、或承担绝大多数孩子教育责任是更合理的,但是放在实际操作中,现实的力量实在是太沉重了。,
,当然,父亲指导孩子教育是必须要鼓励的,就连上面提到的那位培训老师也承认,“如果父亲管孩子,孩子会相当厉害,但是很少有父亲会改变这样的角色分配?”。,
,家庭对孩子培养的重视真的能提高孩子成绩吗?,
,家长对孩子的培养,除了规划课外补习之外,还有亲子陪伴、亲子活动、亲子交流和亲子监督等。,
,什么样的家长更热衷于给孩子进行课外补习呢?李佳丽等(2019)在《父母参与、课外补习和中学生学业成绩》中提到,参与亲子陪伴(比如陪伴孩子读书运动等)、亲子活动(和孩子除外看演出、参观博物馆等)、亲子监督(监督孩子做功课)越多的家长,越有可能让孩子参加课外补习。不过亲子交流和家校沟通与参加课外补习关系不大。,
,这说明,亲子交流和家校沟通与课外补习没有直接关系,家长并不是把课外补习当做缺少亲子交流或者了解学校状况的补偿方式。家长的目的性很强,就是希望通过课外补习提高孩子的教育竞争力,课外补习在手段上也就类似于亲子陪伴、亲子活动和亲子监督。,
,然而,并不是所有的亲子间互动都对孩子的教育竞争力有显着的良好效果。,
,《父母参与、课外补习和中学生学业成绩》中指出,亲子陪伴、亲子交流、家校沟通行为对学生的学业成绩有显着正向影响作用,亲子交流对学生学业成绩,尤其是对语文成绩的影响最大。然而,陪伴子女参观科技馆博物馆、观看电影等亲子活动对学生的学业成绩没有影响,父母检查作业、指导功课等亲子监督行为对学生学业成绩表现出消极作用。,
,这可能是因为在亲子监督过程中,有些家长并不掌握正确的教育办法,却自信满满自以为是,强行给孩子辅导功课,甚至在受到挫折后向孩子施加负面情绪,这对孩子的教育有害无利,也不利于家长的身心健康。,
,一放就乱,一管就死,看来放在小小的家庭中也能生效。,
,,
,所以对孩子的教育,也是真的会在家庭中产生矛盾的。《母职的经纪人化——教育市场化背景下的母职变迁》里一个家庭的夫妻就因为孩子教育问题产生了矛盾,尽管及家庭教育的主要责任人是妻子一方,但丈夫一方在指手画脚:,
,“我和我爱人没有达成共识,他批评我现在相当于把孩子领上了另外一条路,上奥数参加杯赛才能拿到敲门砖进入好的学校嘛,我现在反倒给数学卡了,他觉得我这件事方向不对,觉得我的付出不够多。他又没办法去帮忙,他judge我的时候我就不同意。他要坐班,在郊区,一周回来两三次吧,但回来也都八九点了。他就没把这件事当成他的主业。”,
,看来,家家都有难念的经,不是所有家庭都能完全毫无负担地投入对孩子的精细化培养的。,
,什么样的家庭在精细化培养孩子?,
,既然对孩子的教育投入也是“代理有闲”消费的一种,那么中产阶级在对孩子的精细化培养上投入应该是更高一些的。,
,林晓珊(2018)在《“购买希望”:城镇家庭中的儿童教育消费》中提到,家庭经济中等及以上、父母接受过高等教育、职业为白领的的中产阶层,相对于家庭经济困境、父母没有接受过高等教育和非白领职业的家庭来说,儿童校外教育消费更多。,
,这也很符合我们的直观感觉。,
,而且相对而言,那些家长职业地位更高、受教育程度更高、经济状况更富裕的家庭,对儿童参加艺体兴趣班的影响力比参加课程辅导班的影响力更大一些——会一门乐器的朋友们,你们的父母当年很可能是那个年代的中产阶级及以上水平。更何况现在会一门钢琴这样的俗乐器都开始遭人嫌弃了,优质兴趣包括但不限于骑马、儿童高尔夫、击剑之类的。,
,说到这里,老油条在我边上哭了。他有过一个会马术盛装舞步和重剑的前女友,如今在欧洲做奢侈品营销,终日与贵妇们同进出毫无违和感。而老油条实在是个只会骑自行车,战斗技能仅限于用U型锁打人的粗汉,最终贫穷甚至限制了他追求爱情的资格。,
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,当然,中产阶级也是能为这些更多的教育投入更多的资源,并在长期进行更多的储蓄。,
,杨真等(2019)在《教育期望视角下的子女教育与家庭消费》里提到,与无入学子女家庭相比,对孩子教育期望较低的家庭教育消费一年的投入平均高达3150 元,对孩子教育期望较高的家庭教育消费一年的投入平均高达3460元。,
,除此之外,对孩子的教育也促使家长进行储蓄,从而挤出了部分非教育消费。与无入学子女家庭相比,对孩子教育期望较低的家庭,一年消费降低1201元,降幅2.59%;对孩子教育期望较高的家庭,一年消费降低4596元,降幅9.92%。这部分挤出的消费是长远来看进行储蓄的那部分资源。,
,所以小夫妻抱怨生了孩子生活质量下降,那都是有原因的——资源有很大一部分投入到了孩子身上,还有很大一部分用在了长远的储蓄上。光是这笔账,就能让人想起我们之前那篇《我要是女的,我也不想生孩子》。,
,教育的内卷图景,
,《教育期望视角下的子女教育与家庭消费》里还提到,农村对孩子教育期望较高的家庭,挤出的消费虽然绝对数额低于城市对孩子教育期望较高的家庭,但相对比例则更高,这说明重视教育的农村家庭已经准备好了进行相对更高的储蓄,付出更多的牺牲。,
,也难怪那些有农村爹妈的城市青年一边嫌弃他们土,却又一边割舍不了对他们的感恩。,
,而在城市里,由于中产阶层本身资产并不充足,支持他们的社会地位和经济水平的是文化资本,所以他们会更迫切地想要通过教育将文化资本传递到下一代,这也是他们更重视教育的原因。,
,然而公共教育的“减负”导致育负担转嫁到家庭,这就迫使中产阶层家庭要在公共教育之外投入更多的资源和时间,向课外补习求助,以巩固自己家庭的文化资本优势。而公共教育的弱化,对于农村家庭无疑是更为不公平的。阶层流动减少了,他们要么需要进行相对更高比例的教育储蓄,消费挤出更明显,要么就放弃更多对于后代的文化资本投入。,
,城市中产阶层家庭会投入更多资源到教育消费,也就催生了更为旺盛的课外教育行业。通过文化资本的传递和积累,在中产阶层有一席之地,让人想到《房思琪的初恋乐园》最后的那段话:,
,“路人骑摩托车经过,巍峨的大楼就像拔地而出的神庙,路人往往会转过去,掀了安全帽的面盖,对后座的亲人说:“要是能住进这里,一辈子也算圆满了。”,
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,由于要花更多时间和精力做孩子与学校内外教育的沟通渠道,家长,往往是母亲,不得不投入更多时间做孩子的“经纪人”。,
,这对女性的职业发展很多时候显然是更不公平的。《母职的经纪人化 ——教育市场化背景下的母职变迁》里多位职场女性就提到了履行这样高投入的母职对工作的影响:,
,“(母职)跟你的职业生涯争夺时间是肯定的。我自己感觉,有了孩子以后明显在工作上的时间受很大影响,工作没有以前产出多了。”,
,“我已经开始越来越理性地看待自己的能力,既然能力达不到(超人一样兼顾),那我就把人生的阶段拉长了看,不要非要在这个时间点完成所有的事情。是不是?我把不同的事情分配到不同的阶段上。我20-30(岁)的时候,我达到我求知、求学的年龄段的极致; 30-40( 岁)这10年我已经告诉我自己,奉献给我的孩子和家庭,工作只要应付,只要最低标准……40岁的时候我闺女上二年级,学习习惯也养成了,我到了40(岁)可能能达到对孩子相对超脱的状态,我只能那方面减轻了之后才能对工作重新投入。”,
,这可能纯粹是她想多了。孩子上小学,战备阶段结束,真正的战争才刚刚打响。到时候要回归职场,无论是家庭、孩子、企业还是她自己的决心,都会成为阻碍。,
,当然,也有极少数人生赢家,通过履行母职实现了人生价值。,
,《母职的经纪人化 ——教育市场化背景下的母职变迁》里的一位母亲培养出了一个参加数学竞赛国家集训队的孩子,她在培养过程中与她与课外机构和老师保持着良好的互动,并做了详细的总结,成为北京竞赛教育培训圈子里的专家。2017年底,她正式辞职,入职某科研院所的少儿编程教育团队,开启了职业生涯的新篇章。,
,在这极少数的人生赢家之外,则是整个教育体系不断内卷的现实。现在的孩子们,从很小的时候就甚至比“996”还要辛苦。,
,这一点,我们办公室外某课外机构那些和我们抢公共卫生间的家长和哇哇乱叫的孩子们可能更清楚。,
,本文来自微信公众号:非凡油条(ID:ffyoutiao),作者:豆腐乳儿

ti tu lai zi dong fang IC, ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: fei fan you tiao ID: ffyoutiao, zuo zhe: dou fu ru er,, hai dian hai zi, tian xia wu di a!,, zui jin zai wang shang liu chuan zhe zhe yang yi ge duan zi:,,,, zhe ge duan zi zai mou zhong cheng du shang shuo ming liao bei jing cheng liu qu jiao yu de can ku xing wai ren kan lai, bei jing gao kao xiang dang rong yi, dan zai bei jing cheng liu qu jia zhang zhe li, ze shi nu li bu duan ti qian, cong xiao jiu yao zhua qi de man man chang lu. shun bian shuo yi ju, zai cheng liu qu wai de bei jing, yi ben lu qu lv shen zhi hai bu ru mou xie gao kao da sheng.,, zhe jiu yi wei zhe bu shao jia zhang, you qi shi geng duo fu ze zhao kan hai zi de na yi fang, yao zao zao jiu hua hen duo xin si zai hai zi jiao yu wen ti shang. gao tou ru zhang shi qi mi ji xing de jia ting jiao yu mo shi ye jiu zhu jian bei hen duo jia ting jie shou.,,, shang shu yan lun lai zi yang ke 2018 de mu zhi de jing ji ren hua jiao yu shi chang hua bei jing xia de mu zhi bian qian li bei cai fang de yi ge hai zi mu qin. zhe pian lun wen ti chu, you yu jiao yu pei yang hai zi xu yao hua fei hen duo jing li, bu shao jia ting cheng yuan jue da duo shu wei mu qin lai wei hai zi shou ji xin xi zhi ding jiao yu mu biao he ji hua fa hui jian du zuo yong zheng he jiao yu zi yuan, zhe zhong zuo fa hen xiang ba zi jia hai zi dang cheng" ming xing" lai pei yang, suo yi" mu zhi" chu xian le" jing ji ren hua" de xian xiang.,, na me wei shen me hui you" mu zhi de jing ji ren hua" xian xiang? cheng dan" jing ji ren" jue se de, wei shen me da duo shu shi mu qin? zhe zhong dui hai zi jiao yu gao tou ru de zuo fa, you hui gei hai zi jia zhang he jia ting dai lai shen me yang de ying xiang ne?,," mu zhi de jing ji ren hua" shi jiao yu jun bei jing sai de chan wu,, zai bei jing zui hao de gao zhong zhi yi ren da fu zhong de xue sheng zhi jian liu chuan zhe yi ge duan zi:" gao zhong bu nu li, bi ye qu ge bi", ye jiu shi shuo ta men xin zhong zui cha de xuan ze jiu shi ge bi de zhong guo ren min da xue. lei si de shi qing zai shang hai ye you: bei quan guo wei er de shi fan 985 zhi yi hua dong shi da bu yu qi lai de hua er fu zhong de xue sheng men, ye jue de zui cha de jie ju shi kao hua dong shi da.,, zhe shi xiang dang ke pa de xian shi jue da duo shu ren yan zhong fen dou xu duo nian cai neng shao wei jie jin de mu biao, zhi shi bie ren de qi pao xian.,, ran er jin ru ren da fu zhong hua er zhe yang de ming xing gao zhong you shi xiang dang kun nan de. zhe li de xue sheng bu ran jiu shi cheng ji ding jian, bu ran jiu shi fei fu ji gui. huan yan zhi, zao zai jin ru gao zhong zhi qian, bei jing de zui you xiu de xue sheng jiu bei zhei xie ming xiao gao zhong qia jian le. bie shuo cheng liu qu zhi wai, jiu lian zhei xie fei ming xing gao zhong de ren, kao shang hao da xue de gai lv dou hen di.,, ji xu qian tui, hai zi men jiu yao shang ming xing chu zhong, zai wang qian jiu shi xiao xue he zao jiao, na shi yi si yi hao dou bu ke yi fang song.,, ma ma men dan ren jing ji ren de jun bei jing sai ye jiu ke yi li jie le.,, er zai zhe chang jun bei jing sai zhong, jin jin shi xue xiao jiao yu shi bu gou de, shen zhi shi kao bu zhu de, bu jin xiang shang mian ti dao de na wei jia zhang shi zhe me ren wei de, jiu lian pei xun ji gou li de lao shi ye shi zhe me xiang de. mu zhi de jing ji ren hua jiao yu shi chang hua bei jing xia de mu zhi bian qian li yi wei you jin 20 nian ke wai pei xun jing yan de lao shi shi zhe me shuo de:,,,,, hua shi ye mei cuo, bi jing" jian fu" de jie guo bu shi zhen de ba hai zi de fu dan jian xia lai le, er shi jian shao le xue xiao de fu dan. zui zhong gao kao hai shi zhe ge nan du, liu xue she ji de shi geng duo, xue xiao geng dai bu dong, xue sheng zhong jiu hai shi yao zai ke wai bu ke. ran er jiao yu ji gou yu long hun za, zai ke wai xue shen me zen me xue zai shen me ji gou xue cheng le jia zhang bu de bu mian dui de wen ti. zhe deng yu shi ba xue xiao jiao yu de fu dan zhuan yi dao le jia ting jiao yu zhong, shi yi ge jiao yu fu dan zhuan jia dao jia ting de guo cheng.,, yong jing ji xue shu yu lai shuo, zhe shi ba guo li jiao yu dan wei de jiao yu zhuan ye xing xia fang dao le jia ting, shi yi ge qu zhuan ye hua de guo cheng. dan shi gen la ji fen lei zhe yang wu guan tong yang de zhuan ye hua xia fang bu tong, hai zi shi jia zhang wei yi de xi wang, jiu suan zai nan ye yao ying zhe tou pi shang.,, gan de shi jian jiu le, zi ji ye jiu cheng le zhi ye jing ji ren.,, jia ting jiao yu de zhong dan, da duo luo zai le mu qin shen shang,, chu le gong gong jiao yu de" jian fu" dao zhi yu fu dan zhuan jia dao jia ting zhi wai, ji shi nian lai zhong guo jia ting hai you hen duo bian hua. ru zai cheng shi hua he ji hua sheng yu de ying xiang xia, zhong guo de he xin jia ting bian cheng le fu mu yu yi ge hai zi de san kou xiao jia ting mo shi.,, zai mei jia mei hu hai zi dou hen shao de qing kuang xia, jia zhang jiu hui cai qu jing xin pei yang de mo shi, zai hai zi shen shang tou ru de zong jing li he zi yuan cheng ben bi yi wang sheng hen duo hai zi de shi hou hai yao duo.,, zai hua ni qian shi lao niang kan de qi ni li wo men ti dao guo, zhong chan jie ji de jia ting xiao fei mo shi shi: nan xing nu li gong zuo, qi zi zuo zhu fu, zuo" dai li you xian zhe".,, zhe shi jin dai she hui ou mei guo jia de qing kuang, fang zai jin ri zhi zhong guo, you shi ling yi fan guang jing.,, zhong guo nv xing zai gong zuo ling yu de jie fang jiao wei chong fen yi xie, zhi chang jing zheng de guan nian hen de ren xin, er yi ban xiao jia ting ye hen nan you qian rang nv xing wan quan zuo jia ting zhu fu" dai li you xian", suo yi nv ren yi fu yu zhang fu sheng cun, fu ze hua qian de xian xiang ruo le hen duo. dan zhe ge jue se zong yao you ren ban yan, na jiu shi hai zi.,, zai wo yao shi nv de, wo ye bu xiang sheng hai zi li wo men ti dao guo, nv xing zai jia ting zhong cheng dan le geng duo zhao liao jia ren de ren wu. ru guo jiao yu fu dan zhuan jia dao jia ting, na me yi ban lai shuo kang qi zhe bu fen ze ren de hai hui shi mu qin. zhe reng ran shi chuan tong jia ting fen gong de yi liu.,,,, zhe zhong yi liu zai ren xin zhong xiang dang wan gu. mu zhi de jing ji ren hua jiao yu shi chang hua bei jing xia de mu zhi bian qian li yi wei fu qin shi zhe yang shuo de:" ken ding shi ta ma cao xin duo, ta dou gei quan cheng gui hua hao le, lao shi ye shi ta tiao wo jiu fu ze pao tui kai che, ran hou jiao qian.",, bu jin fu qin zhe me kan, shang mian ti dao de na wei pei xun lao shi ye shi ren wei mu qin cao xin hai zi jiao yu geng wei he li:" wo xian zai shi yue lai yue jue de quan zhi ma ma de jia ting geng he li le. zhe shi ju wo zi ji guan cha, wo jue de shi zhe yang, zhe ge she hui ying gai you yi ge he li de she hui fen gong zhe ge she hui fen gong xu yao you yi ge ren, jia ting nei bu jie gou li zhe ge hai zi shi you ren zhuan zhi lai zhao gu de, ran hou zai zhe ge ji chu shang ru guo ni hai you yu li, ni ke yi gan yi dian zi ji xi huan de gong zuo ma.",, wo men hai shi xiang dang qing xiang yu nan nv ping deng de, suo yi bing bu ren wei mu qin hui gui jia ting huo cheng dan jue da duo shu hai zi jiao yu ze ren shi geng he li de, dan shi fang zai shi ji cao zuo zhong, xian shi de li liang shi zai shi tai chen zhong le.,, dang ran, fu qin zhi dao hai zi jiao yu shi bi xu yao gu li de, jiu lian shang mian ti dao de na wei pei xun lao shi ye cheng ren," ru guo fu qin guan hai zi, hai zi hui xiang dang li hai, dan shi hen shao you fu qin hui gai bian zhe yang de jue se fen pei".,, jia ting dui hai zi pei yang de zhong shi zhen de neng ti gao hai zi cheng ji ma?,, jia zhang dui hai zi de pei yang, chu le gui hua ke wai bu xi zhi wai, hai you qin zi pei ban qin zi huo dong qin zi jiao liu he qin zi jian du deng.,, shen me yang de jia zhang geng re zhong yu gei hai zi jin xing ke wai bu xi ne? li jia li deng 2019 zai fu mu can yu ke wai bu xi he zhong xue sheng xue ye cheng ji zhong ti dao, can yu qin zi pei ban bi ru pei ban hai zi du shu yun dong deng qin zi huo dong he hai zi chu wai kan yan chu can guan bo wu guan deng qin zi jian du jian du hai zi zuo gong ke yue duo de jia zhang, yue you ke neng rang hai zi can jia ke wai bu xi. bu guo qin zi jiao liu he jia xiao gou tong yu can jia ke wai bu xi guan xi bu da.,, zhe shuo ming, qin zi jiao liu he jia xiao gou tong yu ke wai bu xi mei you zhi jie guan xi, jia zhang bing bu shi ba ke wai bu xi dang zuo que shao qin zi jiao liu huo zhe liao jie xue xiao zhuang kuang de bu chang fang shi. jia zhang de mu di xing hen qiang, jiu shi xi wang tong guo ke wai bu xi ti gao hai zi de jiao yu jing zheng li, ke wai bu xi zai shou duan shang ye jiu lei si yu qin zi pei ban qin zi huo dong he qin zi jian du.,, ran er, bing bu shi suo you de qin zi jian hu dong dou dui hai zi de jiao yu jing zheng li you xian zhu de liang hao xiao guo.,, fu mu can yu ke wai bu xi he zhong xue sheng xue ye cheng ji zhong zhi chu, qin zi pei ban qin zi jiao liu jia xiao gou tong xing wei dui xue sheng de xue ye cheng ji you xian zhu zheng xiang ying xiang zuo yong, qin zi jiao liu dui xue sheng xue ye cheng ji, you qi shi dui yu wen cheng ji de ying xiang zui da. ran er, pei ban zi nv can guan ke ji guan bo wu guan guan kan dian ying deng qin zi huo dong dui xue sheng de xue ye cheng ji mei you ying xiang, fu mu jian cha zuo ye zhi dao gong ke deng qin zi jian du xing wei dui xue sheng xue ye cheng ji biao xian chu xiao ji zuo yong.,, zhe ke neng shi yin wei zai qin zi jian du guo cheng zhong, you xie jia zhang bing bu zhang wo zheng que de jiao yu ban fa, que zi xin man man zi yi wei shi, qiang xing gei hai zi fu dao gong ke, shen zhi zai shou dao cuo zhe hou xiang hai zi shi jia fu mian qing xu, zhe dui hai zi de jiao yu you hai wu li, ye bu li yu jia zhang de shen xin jian kang.,, yi fang jiu luan, yi guan jiu si, kan lai fang zai xiao xiao de jia ting zhong ye neng sheng xiao.,,,, suo yi dui hai zi de jiao yu, ye shi zhen de hui zai jia ting zhong chan sheng mao dun de. mu zhi de jing ji ren hua jiao yu shi chang hua bei jing xia de mu zhi bian qian li yi ge jia ting de fu qi jiu yin wei hai zi jiao yu wen ti chan sheng le mao dun, jin guan ji jia ting jiao yu de zhu yao ze ren ren shi qi zi yi fang, dan zhang fu yi fang zai zhi shou hua jiao:,," wo he wo ai ren mei you da cheng gong shi, ta pi ping wo xian zai xiang dang yu ba hai zi ling shang le ling wai yi tiao lu, shang ao shu can jia bei sai cai neng na dao qiao men zhuan jin ru hao de xue xiao ma, wo xian zai fan dao gei shu xue ka le, ta jue de wo zhe jian shi fang xiang bu dui, jue de wo de fu chu bu gou duo. ta you mei ban fa qu bang mang, ta judge wo de shi hou wo jiu bu tong yi. ta yao zuo ban, zai jiao qu, yi zhou hui lai liang san ci ba, dan hui lai ye dou ba jiu dian le. ta jiu mei ba zhe jian shi dang cheng ta de zhu ye.",, kan lai, jia jia dou you nan nian de jing, bu shi suo you jia ting dou neng wan quan hao wu fu dan di tou ru dui hai zi de jing xi hua pei yang de.,, shen me yang de jia ting zai jing xi hua pei yang hai zi?,, ji ran dui hai zi de jiao yu tou ru ye shi" dai li you xian" xiao fei de yi zhong, na me zhong chan jie ji zai dui hai zi de jing xi hua pei yang shang tou ru ying gai shi geng gao yi xie de.,, lin xiao shan 2018 zai" gou mai xi wang": cheng zhen jia ting zhong de er tong jiao yu xiao fei zhong ti dao, jia ting jing ji zhong deng ji yi shang fu mu jie shou guo gao deng jiao yu zhi ye wei bai ling de de zhong chan jie ceng, xiang dui yu jia ting jing ji kun jing fu mu mei you jie shou guo gao deng jiao yu he fei bai ling zhi ye de jia ting lai shuo, er tong xiao wai jiao yu xiao fei geng duo.,, zhe ye hen fu he wo men de zhi guan gan jue.,, er qie xiang dui er yan, nei xie jia zhang zhi ye di wei geng gao shou jiao yu cheng du geng gao jing ji zhuang kuang geng fu yu de jia ting, dui er tong can jia yi ti xing qu ban de ying xiang li bi can jia ke cheng fu dao ban de ying xiang li geng da yi xie hui yi men yue qi de peng you men, ni men de fu mu dang nian hen ke neng shi na ge nian dai de zhong chan jie ji ji yi shang shui ping. geng he kuang xian zai hui yi men gang qin zhe yang de su yue qi dou kai shi zao ren xian qi le, you zhi xing qu bao kuo dan bu xian yu qi ma er tong gao er fu ji jian zhi lei de.,, shuo dao zhe li, lao you tiao zai wo bian shang ku le. ta you guo yi ge hui ma shu sheng zhuang wu bu he zhong jian de qian nv you, ru jin zai ou zhou zuo she chi pin ying xiao, zhong ri yu gui fu men tong jin chu hao wu wei he gan. er lao you tiao shi zai shi ge zhi hui qi zi xing che, zhan dou ji neng jin xian yu yong U xing suo da ren de cu han, zui zhong pin qiong shen zhi xian zhi le ta zhui qiu ai qing de zi ge.,,,, dang ran, zhong chan jie ji ye shi neng wei zhei xie geng duo de jiao yu tou ru geng duo de zi yuan, bing zai chang qi jin xing geng duo de chu xu.,, yang zhen deng 2019 zai jiao yu qi wang shi jiao xia de zi nv jiao yu yu jia ting xiao fei li ti dao, yu wu ru xue zi nv jia ting xiang bi, dui hai zi jiao yu qi wang jiao di de jia ting jiao yu xiao fei yi nian de tou ru ping jun gao da 3150 yuan, dui hai zi jiao yu qi wang jiao gao de jia ting jiao yu xiao fei yi nian de tou ru ping jun gao da 3460 yuan.,, chu ci zhi wai, dui hai zi de jiao yu ye cu shi jia zhang jin xing chu xu, cong er ji chu le bu fen fei jiao yu xiao fei. yu wu ru xue zi nv jia ting xiang bi, dui hai zi jiao yu qi wang jiao di de jia ting, yi nian xiao fei jiang di 1201 yuan, jiang fu 2. 59 dui hai zi jiao yu qi wang jiao gao de jia ting, yi nian xiao fei jiang di 4596 yuan, jiang fu 9. 92. zhe bu fen ji chu de xiao fei shi chang yuan lai kan jin xing chu xu de na bu fen zi yuan.,, suo yi xiao fu qi bao yuan sheng le hai zi sheng huo zhi liang xia jiang, na dou shi you yuan yin de zi yuan you hen da yi bu fen tou ru dao le hai zi shen shang, hai you hen da yi bu fen yong zai le chang yuan de chu xu shang. guang shi zhe bi zhang, jiu neng rang ren xiang qi wo men zhi qian na pian wo yao shi nv de, wo ye bu xiang sheng hai zi.,, jiao yu de nei juan tu jing,, jiao yu qi wang shi jiao xia de zi nv jiao yu yu jia ting xiao fei li hai ti dao, nong cun dui hai zi jiao yu qi wang jiao gao de jia ting, ji chu de xiao fei sui ran jue dui shu e di yu cheng shi dui hai zi jiao yu qi wang jiao gao de jia ting, dan xiang dui bi li ze geng gao, zhe shuo ming zhong shi jiao yu de nong cun jia ting yi jing zhun bei hao le jin xing xiang dui geng gao de chu xu, fu chu geng duo de xi sheng.,, ye nan guai nei xie you nong cun die ma de cheng shi qing nian yi bian xian qi ta men tu, que you yi bian ge she bu liao dui ta men de gan en.,, er zai cheng shi li, you yu zhong chan jie ceng ben shen zi chan bing bu chong zu, zhi chi ta men de she hui di wei he jing ji shui ping de shi wen hua zi ben, suo yi ta men hui geng po qie di xiang yao tong guo jiao yu jiang wen hua zi ben chuan di dao xia yi dai, zhe ye shi ta men geng zhong shi jiao yu de yuan yin.,, ran er gong gong jiao yu de" jian fu" dao zhi yu fu dan zhuan jia dao jia ting, zhe jiu po shi zhong chan jie ceng jia ting yao zai gong gong jiao yu zhi wai tou ru geng duo de zi yuan he shi jian, xiang ke wai bu xi qiu zhu, yi gong gu zi ji jia ting de wen hua zi ben you shi. er gong gong jiao yu de ruo hua, dui yu nong cun jia ting wu yi shi geng wei bu gong ping de. jie ceng liu dong jian shao le, ta men yao me xu yao jin xing xiang dui geng gao bi li de jiao yu chu xu, xiao fei ji chu geng ming xian, yao me jiu fang qi geng duo dui yu hou dai de wen hua zi ben tou ru.,, cheng shi zhong chan jie ceng jia ting hui tou ru geng duo zi yuan dao jiao yu xiao fei, ye jiu cui sheng le geng wei wang sheng de ke wai jiao yu hang ye. tong guo wen hua zi ben de chuan di he ji lei, zai zhong chan jie ceng you yi xi zhi di, rang ren xiang dao fang si qi de chu lian le yuan zui hou de na duan hua:,," lu ren qi mo tuo che jing guo, wei e de da lou jiu xiang ba di er chu de shen miao, lu ren wang wang hui zhuan guo qu, xian le an quan mao de mian gai, dui hou zuo de qin ren shuo:" yao shi neng zhu jin zhe li, yi bei zi ye suan yuan man le.",,,, you yu yao hua geng duo shi jian he jing li zuo hai zi yu xue xiao nei wai jiao yu de gou tong qu dao, jia zhang, wang wang shi mu qin, bu de bu tou ru geng duo shi jian zuo hai zi de" jing ji ren".,, zhe dui nv xing de zhi ye fa zhan hen duo shi hou xian ran shi geng bu gong ping de. mu zhi de jing ji ren hua jiao yu shi chang hua bei jing xia de mu zhi bian qian li duo wei zhi chang nv xing jiu ti dao le lv xing zhe yang gao tou ru de mu zhi dui gong zuo de ying xiang:,," mu zhi gen ni de zhi ye sheng ya zheng duo shi jian shi ken ding de. wo zi ji gan jue, you le hai zi yi hou ming xian zai gong zuo shang de shi jian shou hen da ying xiang, gong zuo mei you yi qian chan chu duo le.",," wo yi jing kai shi yue lai yue li xing di kan dai zi ji de neng li, ji ran neng li da bu dao chao ren yi yang jian gu, na wo jiu ba ren sheng de jie duan la chang le kan, bu yao fei yao zai zhe ge shi jian dian wan cheng suo you de shi qing. shi bu shi? wo ba bu tong de shi qing fen pei dao bu tong de jie duan shang. wo 20 30 sui de shi hou, wo da dao wo qiu zhi qiu xue de nian ling duan de ji zhi 30 40 sui zhe 10 nian wo yi jing gao su wo zi ji, feng xian gei wo de hai zi he jia ting, gong zuo zhi yao ying fu, zhi yao zui di biao zhun 40 sui de shi hou wo gui nv shang er nian ji, xue xi xi guan ye yang cheng le, wo dao le 40 sui ke neng neng da dao dui hai zi xiang dui chao tuo de zhuang tai, wo zhi neng na fang mian jian qing le zhi hou cai neng dui gong zuo chong xin tou ru.",, zhe ke neng chun cui shi ta xiang duo le. hai zi shang xiao xue, zhan bei jie duan jie shu, zhen zheng de zhan zheng cai gang gang da xiang. dao shi hou yao hui gui zhi chang, wu lun shi jia ting hai zi qi ye hai shi ta zi ji de jue xin, dou hui cheng wei zu ai.,, dang ran, ye you ji shao shu ren sheng ying jia, tong guo lv xing mu zhi shi xian le ren sheng jia zhi.,, mu zhi de jing ji ren hua jiao yu shi chang hua bei jing xia de mu zhi bian qian li de yi wei mu qin pei yang chu le yi ge can jia shu xue jing sai guo jia ji xun dui de hai zi, ta zai pei yang guo cheng zhong yu ta yu ke wai ji gou he lao shi bao chi zhe liang hao de hu dong, bing zuo le xiang xi de zong jie, cheng wei bei jing jing sai jiao yu pei xun quan zi li de zhuan jia. 2017 nian di, ta zheng shi ci zhi, ru zhi mou ke yan yuan suo de shao er bian cheng jiao yu tuan dui, kai qi le zhi ye sheng ya de xin pian zhang.,, zai zhe ji shao shu de ren sheng ying jia zhi wai, ze shi zheng ge jiao yu ti xi bu duan nei juan de xian shi. xian zai de hai zi men, cong hen xiao de shi hou jiu shen zhi bi" 996" hai yao xin ku.,, zhe yi dian, wo men ban gong shi wai mou ke wai ji gou nei xie he wo men qiang gong gong wei sheng jian de jia zhang he wa wa luan jiao de hai zi men ke neng geng qing chu.,, ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: fei fan you tiao ID: ffyoutiao, zuo zhe: dou fu ru er

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